Химический состав масла Чёрного Тмина (Black cumin, Nigella sativa L.)

Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) belongs to Ranunculaceae family and is native to some parts of the Mediterranean region .It grows in the Mediteranean countries to a maximum height of about 60 cm and is cultivated in Turkey[1],[2],[3]. Black seed oil is used as edible oil[4]. It is important source of oil being of nutritional ,industrial and pharmaceutical importance .As non-conventional oil, Nigella sativa oil is under consideration because, it has unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of the functional edible oils[2].

Black seed oil is popularly used in certain cases of chronic cough, as diuretic or carminative agent and in bronchial asthma[3]. Little information is available concerning the exact composition of Niglla sativa seed oil. There exist limited studies on the Nigella sativa oil, its properties and the contents of fatty acids and tocopherols[3]. Black seed oil is reported to be beneficial in the control or management of African sleeping sikness due to its content of over a hundred components such as aromatic oils, trace elements, and vitamins. It is a phytotherapeutic known to reduce the risk to illness and disease by strengthening immune system and protecting the body. Recent reports however suggest that thymoquinone present in the oil might be the active component[5]. Nigella sativa oil is considered as one among newer sources of edible oils, thanks to its important role in human nutrition and health[5].

The present investigation was carried out to assess the physic- chemical characteristics, nutrients content and fatty acid composition of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil.

Состав химический

The black seeds contain:
protein (26.7%),
fat (28.5%),
carbohydrates (24.9%),
crude fiber (8.4%),
total ash (4.8%),
volatile oil (0.5–1.6%),
fatty oil (35.6–41.5%),
cellulose (6.8–7.4%)
and moisture (8.1–11.6%).

The seeds are also rich in various vitamins (e.g. – A, B1, B2, B3 and C) and minerals (e.g., – Ca, K, Se, Cu, P, Zn, Fe).  Carotene and vanillic acid are also found existing in seeds and roots, and shoots.

As fatty components, linolic acid (50–60%), oleic acid (20%), dihomolinoleic acid (10%) and eicodadienoic acid (3%) are the main unsaturated fatty acids. The palmitic acid and stearic acid belong to two main saturated fatty acids, in which α–sitosterol (44–54%) and stigmasterol (6.57–20.92%) are the pioneers. Some other fatty acids such as myristic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, cholesterol, campesterol, β–sitosterol, Δ5–avenasterol, Δ7–stigmasterol, and Δ7– avenasterol are also reported by Gharby et al. in N. sativa.

The seed contains alkaloids that isoquinoline alkaloids (e.g.– nigellicimine, nigellicimine N–oxide), pyrazole alkaloids or imidazole ring bearing alkaloids (e.g.– nigellidine, nigellicine). It
also contains terpenes (e.g.– α–hederin) and saponins. Evidences tell that thymoquinone (2–Isopropyl–5–methylbenzo–1,4–quinone, 30–48%), thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, p–
cymene (7–15%), carvacrol (6–12%), 4–terpineol (2–7%), t–anethol (1–4%), sesquiterpene longifolene (1–8%), α–pinene and thymol etc. are the most important active components in N.
sativa.

The other chemical components are carvone, nigellicine, nigellone, citrostradienol, cycloeucalenol, gramisterol, lophenol, ostusifoliol, stigmastanol, β–amyrin, butyrospermol, cycloartenol,
24–methylene–cycloartanol, taraxerol, tirucallol, 3–O–[β–D–xylopyranosyl(1→3)–α–L–arabino–pyranosyl]–28–O–[α–L–rhamnopyranosyl(1→4)–β–D–glucopyranosyl(1→6)–β–D–
glucopyranosyl] hederagenin, esters of unsaturated fatty acids with ≥C15 terpenoids, esters of dehydrostearic and linoleic acid, aliphatic alcohol, β–unsaturated hydroxyl ketone, hederagenin glycoside, melanthin, melanthigenin, bitter principle, tannin, resin, reducing sugars, glycosidal saponin, 3–O–[β–D–xylopyranosyl(1→2)–α–L–rhamnopyrasyl(1→2)–β–D–glucopyranosyl]–11–methoxy–16, 23–dihydroxy–28–methylolean–12–enoate,stigma–5,22–dien–3–β–D–glucopyranoside,cycloart–23–methyl–7,20,22–triene–3β,25–diol, nigellidine–4–O–sulfite, N. mines A3, a4, A5, C, N. mines A1, a2, B1, and B2.

1. Органолептические и физико-химические характеристики

The organoleptic and physical properties of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil established its capability of application in either nutrition or in food and pharmaceutical industries. Data of organoleptic and physical properties of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil are outlined in Table (1). The color, odor, and taste of the two studied oils were: yellowish brown, aromatic, and agreeable; clear light yellow, odorless, and agreeable for Nigella sativa oil, and sesame oil; respectively. The results indicate that there is a slight variation in refractive index between the two studied oils. However, the specific gravity of Nigella sativa oil was markedly higher than that of sesame oil. The results are in good agreement with[13],[14] for sesame oil; and [15] for Nigella sativa oil.

Table 1. Organoleptic and physical properties of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil*

Состав химический

2. Химические свойства
The results of the chemical characteristics of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil are given in Table 2. The data indicate that there is a marked variation in iodine value, saponification value, free fatty acids, and peroxide value between Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil. High values of refractive and iodine values might be due to a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in Nigella sativa oil. Saponification is useful in assessing the chain lengths of fatty acids in the oil, since it is inversely comparatively to the molecular weight of the oil. On the other hand, free fatty acids and peroxide value were higher in sesame oil than that of the corresponding values in Nigella sativa oil. The acid values of an oil may be used as a measure of quality. However, the acid value of the oil must not be too high, as this denotes an excessively high content of free fatty acids, which causes the oil to turn sour. Discoloration may also occur. The free fatty acids of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil as show in Table 2 are 0, 82%, and 0.96% respectively, being in the allowable limit.

Table 2. Chemical characteristics of Nigella sativa oil and Sesame oil*

Состав химический

3. Содержание витаминов

The data of ascorbic acid and vitamin E contents of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil are given in Table 3 and Fig.1 & 2. Tocopherols are natural antioxidants with biological activity. Especially, the antioxidant effect is higher due to high α- tocopherol content. The data revealed that Nigella sativa oil recorded higher values of ascorbic acid and vitamin E than that of sesame oil (0.770 mg/100ml, 0.623 mg/100ml); and (0.612 mg/100ml, 0.597mg/100ml); respectively. Such data are in good agreement with[3] for Nigella sativa oil, and[7],[20], and[21] for sesame oil. Sesame oil is a source of Vitamin E. Vitamin E is antioxidant and had been correlated with lowering cholesterol levels[20].

Table 3. Ascorbic acid and Vitamin E contents of Nigella sativa oil and Sesame oil*

Состав химический

 

 

 

 

On the other hand sesame oil is well known for its oxidative stability; one of the reasons for this extra stability is attributed to its tocopherol content. α- Tocopherol is the predominant tocopherol in sesame oil, and is a more potent antioxidant in sesame oil[21]. Besides, tocopherols are natural antioxidants with biological activity. Especially, the antioxidant effect of was higher in Nigella sativa oil due to high α- tocopherol content[3].

4. Содержание минералов
The mineral content of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil given in Table 4. The data revealed that Nigella sativa oil had higher levels of Ca, P, K, Na, and M than that of sesame oil. While sesame oil had higher levels of Mg, Cu and Se. Such data are in general agreement with[22], and[23] for Nigella sativa oil; and[7] for sesame oil.

Table 4. Mineral content of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil*

Состав химический

The following trace elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se are considred a good supplements for the deficiency of these elements in blood serum. The deficiency might be due to the action of agents such as phytate, oxalate and phosphate which are found in quite large amounts in food rich in cereals and proteins from insoluble complexes with zinc and iron to decrease their absorbation. Copper provides relief from rheumatoid arthritis. Magnesium supports vascular and respiratory health. Calcium helps prevent colon cancer, osteoporosis and migraine. Zinc promotes bone health[20].

5. Содержание жирных кислот

The data presented in Table 5 and Fig. 1&2 illustrated the fatty acid composition of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil. The tabulated data showed that the predominant unsaturated fatty acids in both studied oils were lenoleic acid (C18:2) followed by oleic acid (C18:1).

Table 5. Fatty acid composition of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil* (% of total hydrocarbons)

Состав химический

 

Состав химическийСостав химический

Figure 1. Separation of fatty acids and vitamin E in Nigela sativa oil

Состав химическийСостав химический

Figure 2. Separation of fatty acids and vitamin E in Sesame oil

While, the predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid in both studied oils. The total unsaturated fatty acids were 85.141% and 87.978% in Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil respectively. The data are in good agreement with [24],[25],[26],[3], [27],[28], and[5] for Nigella sativa oil; and[7] and[21] for sesame oil. It is noteworthy to state that Nigella sativa oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid (46.036%), and oleic acid (20.917%).

While saturated fatty acid palmitic amounts to 9.658%. Nigella sativa oil is considered as one among newer sources of edible oils, thanks to its important role in human nutrition and health. On the other hand, despite sesame oil’s high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, it is least prone, among cooking oils with high smoke points, to turn rancid when kept in the open, This is due to the natural antioxidants present in the oil[7].

Light sesame oil has a high smoke point and is suitable for deep frying. Therefore, sesame oil belongs to the oleic- linoleic acid group. It has less than 20% saturated fatty acids[21]. Due to the antioxidant properties of sesame oil which provide high levels of antioxidants and lignans, it is stable oil, and when mixed with other oils, actually increases the stability of the blend[29], and[30]. In conclusion, on the basis of the above- mentioned data, both Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil are considered as two among newer sources of good edible oils, on account of their important roles in human nutrition an health.

Цитируемые источники
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